XPS analysis of frozen 1,4-dibromobenzene

The molecule 1,4-dibromobenzene is of interest as a precursor for the synthesis of conjugated polymers with applications in nanoelectronic and electronic devices. 1,4-dibromobenzene has a vapour pressure of 0.0575 mmHg at 25˚C such that it will volatilise in vacuum at room temperature. To achieve XPS characterisation this organic material requires cooling to < -100˚C before pumping and introduction to the analysis chamber.